Investigators at Cedars-Sinai have proposed a principle for a way SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, infects the physique. Their speculation, printed in Frontiers in Immunology, may clarify why some individuals nonetheless have signs lengthy after the preliminary an infection.
“We have put collectively totally different items of information to create a much bigger image that will clarify what causes some individuals’s immune programs to go haywire, resulting in post-acute syndromes, together with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in kids (MIS-C) and lengthy COVID in kids and adults,” stated Moshe Arditi, MD, govt vice chair of the Division of Pediatrics for Analysis, a part of Cedars-Sinai Guerin Kids’s, and senior writer of the paper.
MIS-C is a uncommon however harmful situation in kids that will happen weeks after an infection with SARS-CoV-2. Lengthy COVID-19—sometimes called lengthy COVID—is a time period used to explain a constellation of well being issues that some individuals expertise because of their an infection with SARS-CoV-2. Signs can final months and even years.
SARS-CoV-2 is assumed to latch on to cells by way of spikes that exist on the floor of the virus. These spike proteins are comprised of molecular motifs, stretches of amino acids that make a protein. These tiny molecular motifs might have what the scientists name “superantigen” traits, that means that the immune system can overreact to their presence.
The spike protein, in keeping with the authors, may have neurotoxic motifs that may cross the blood-brain barrier and harm mind cells. This speculation may clarify the “mind fog” and different neurological signs related to COVID-19 and lengthy COVID.
The speculation is predicated on a number of printed research on COVID-19 and different ailments brought on by viruses. One such research by Arditi and his longtime collaborator Ivet Bahar, PhD, was printed within the Proceedings of the Nationwide Academy of Sciences in 2020. Bahar and Arditi created a pc mannequin exhibiting how molecular motifs on the spike protein work together with immune cells. The superantigen molecular motifs trigger the immune cells to launch an abundance of infection-fighting proteins referred to as cytokines that battle the virus but in addition might mistakenly assault the physique’s organs. In kids, this may occasionally manifest as MIS-C.
Different research have reported that individuals with lengthy COVID might carry fragments of the virus of their intestine or different elements of their our bodies months after preliminary an infection. Steady publicity to motifs that lodge themselves in several elements of the physique and have superantigen-like properties might trigger autoimmune signs in individuals with lengthy COVID and MIS-C, in keeping with the authors.
“We have to conduct extra analysis to show if that is certainly the mechanism that causes lengthy COVID in order that we are able to develop remedies to dam it,” stated Magali Noval Rivas, PhD, an investigator at Cedars-Sinai and first writer of the paper.
Arditi, the GUESS?/Style Industries Guild Chair in Neighborhood Baby Well being at Cedars-Sinai who leads the Infectious and Immunologic Ailments Analysis Heart, and colleagues are at the moment conducting a research during which they’re analyzing cerebral spinal fluid samples from individuals with lengthy COVID signs for proof of neurotoxic motifs.
Pc mannequin exhibits how COVID-19 may result in runaway irritation
Magali Noval Rivas et al, Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Kids and Lengthy COVID: The SARS-CoV-2 Viral Superantigen Speculation, Frontiers in Immunology (2022). DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.941009
Cedars-Sinai Medical Heart
Investigators describe mechanism that will trigger post-COVID syndromes (2022, August 19)
retrieved 19 August 2022
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